TRANSFAC FACTOR TABLE, Release 2017.2 - public - 2017-06-30, (C) QIAGEN

AC T00526 AS T00506. XX ID T00526 XX DT 15.10.1992 (created); ewi. DT 21.09.2015 (updated); jmh. CO Copyright (C), QIAGEN. XX FA MyoD XX SY MEF1; Myf-3 (human); Myoblast determination protein 1; MyoD; MyoD1. XX OS mouse, Mus musculus OC eukaryota; animalia; metazoa; chordata; vertebrata; tetrapoda; mammalia; eutheria; rodentia; myomorpha; muridae; murinae XX GE G000576 Myod1. XX CL C0010; bHLH; XX SF spectroscopic data: CD [46] [16]; SF EPR [16]; SF crystal structure [42]; SF heterodimers with E12/E47 bind more avidly to DNA than homodimers [2] [5] [6]; SF the heterodimer is identical to the DNA-binding activity MEF-1 [6]; SF A114 is essential for DNA-binding, T115 for muscle-specific transcriptional activation [45]; SF both residues are buried at the protein-DNA interface and may determine the conformation at R111 which makes a base-specific contact in the major groove [42] [43] [44]; SF L122 discriminates against c-Myc binding sites [31]; SF the DNA-binding specificity differs slightly between MyoD homodimers and MyoD/E12 or MyoD/E47 heterodimers [15]; SF the HLH dimerization domain forms a parallel four-helix-bundle [16]; SF DNA-binding induces the basic region to adopt alpha-helical conformation [16]; SF correct folding may be augmented by hsp90 which, however, is not part of the DNA-bound complex [18] [33] [47]; SF KD (homodimer) = 31.2 uM, KD (MyoD/E47) = 0.72 uM, KD (MyoD/Id) = 0.7 uM [46]; SF MyoD/Id complexes form heterotetramers with KD (tetramer/dimer) = 0.01 uM [46]; SF the trans-activating domain is masked [45]; SF both nuclear localization signal function independently of each other [50]; XX CP myocytes; proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. XX FF transcriptional activator of muscle-specific genes [24] [1]; FF myogenic master gene product causing myogenic differentiation [20] [21] [22]; FF inhibitor of cell proliferation depending on the HLH domain [26] [48]; FF can partly substitute for Myf-5 and vice versa [41]; FF induced immediately after mesoderm induction between the first and second phase of MRF4 expression [22] [37]; FF in regenerating skeletal muscle for at least 2 weeks [27]; FF positive autoregulation [25]; FF positively regulated by thyroid hormone, antagonized by an overlapping AP-1 element [30] [38]; FF for onset of MyoD expression, a dephosphorylation step is required [32]; FF negative regulation of MyoD by ras, c-fos, c-jun, junB, c-myc [19] [23] [28] [29]; FF the N-terminal part of c-Jun directly interacts with the HLH domain of MyoD [29] [49]; FF direct interaction with the pocket domain of Rb protein is required for myogenesis, maintenance of the differentiated state, and repression of cell proliferation [35]; FF hyperphosphorylation upon association with E47 [6]; XX IN T00131 c-Jun; mouse, Mus musculus. IN T09921 c-Myb; mouse, Mus musculus. IN T32513 chd2; mouse, Mus musculus. IN T17710 DEC2; Mammalia. IN T00204 E12; human, Homo sapiens. IN T00675 E12; rat, Rattus norvegicus. IN T01787 E12; clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. IN T00207 E47; human, Homo sapiens. IN T00674 E47; rat, Rattus norvegicus. IN T01788 E47; mouse, Mus musculus. IN T23418 HDAC1; mouse, Mus musculus. IN T09997 Hsp90; mouse, Mus musculus. IN T01790 HTF4alpha; rat, Rattus norvegicus. IN T01791 HTF4beta; rat, Rattus norvegicus. IN T01789 HTF4gamma; rat, Rattus norvegicus. IN T01606 Id1.25; rat, Rattus norvegicus. IN T00403 Id1; mouse, Mus musculus. IN T01807 Id1; rat, Rattus norvegicus. IN T00404 Id2; mouse, Mus musculus. IN T01212 Id2; human, Homo sapiens. IN T00432 ITF-1; human, Homo sapiens. IN T00433 ITF-2; human, Homo sapiens. IN T00505 Mef-2A-isoform1; mouse, Mus musculus. IN T01005 MEF-2A-isoform1; human, Homo sapiens. IN T01784 MEF-2A; clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. IN T01769 MEF-2C-isoform2; mouse, Mus musculus. IN T02505 MEF-2D-isoform muscle; mouse, Mus musculus. IN T02506 MEF-2D-isoform non-muscle; mouse, Mus musculus. IN T01770 mef-2d-isoform1; human, Homo sapiens. IN T01771 MEF-2DAB; clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. IN T00524 MyoD; clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. IN T00525 MyoD; human, Homo sapiens. IN T00526 MyoD; mouse, Mus musculus. IN T00527 MyoD; monkey, Cercopithecus aethiops. IN T01128 MyoD; chick, Gallus gallus. IN T05133 p/CAF; mouse, Mus musculus. IN T01427 p300; human, Homo sapiens. IN T10542 p300; mouse, Mus musculus. IN T00722 pRb; human, Homo sapiens. IN T01423 pRb; mouse, Mus musculus. XX MX M00804 V$E2A_Q2. MX M00973 V$E2A_Q6. MX M01034 V$EBOX_Q6_01. MX M07112 V$MYOD1_02. MX M00001 V$MYOD_01. MX M00184 V$MYOD_Q6. MX M00929 V$MYOD_Q6_01. MX M02100 V$MYOD_Q6_02. XX BS R25458. BS R41834. BS R41837. BS R02452. BS R66436. BS R02418. BS R02419. BS R38002. BS R66434. BS R66979. BS R21748. BS R21757. BS R22201. BS R61892. BS R00019. BS R29461. BS R29462. BS R22281. BS R29160. BS R29172. BS R29174. BS R14863. BS R14864. BS R69749. BS R69750. BS R69751. BS R69340. BS R00850. BS R26275. BS R26277. BS R00881. BS R00882. BS R32406. BS R32407. BS R32415. BS R32420. BS R00240. BS R00241. BS R00242. BS R00245. BS R35608. BS R35609. BS R35610. BS R35611. BS R35612. BS R64832. BS R68123. BS R58688. BS R66430. BS R37906. BS R37907. BS R61895. BS R32855. BS R35613. BS R35614. BS R35615. BS R02208. BS R04521. BS R70245. BS R70248. BS R61419. BS R25453. BS R25456. BS R26268. BS R26271. BS R03074. BS R03075. BS R03076. BS R33244. BS R33246. XX DR TRANSPATH: MO000024989. DR UniProtKB: P10085; DR PDB: 1mdy. XX RN [1]; RE0000052. RX PUBMED: 2550138. RA Lassar A. B., Buskin J. N., Lockshon D., Davis R. L., Apone S., Hauschka S. D., Weintraub H. RT MyoD is a sequence-specific DNA binding protein requiring a region of myc homology to bind to the muscle creatine kinase enhancer RL Cell 58:823-831 (1989). RN [2]; RE0000053. RX PUBMED: 2503252. RA Murre C., McCaw P. S., Vaessin H., Caudy M., Jan L. Y., Jan Y. N., Cabrera C. V., Buskin J. N., Hauschka S. D., Lassar A. B., Weintraub H., Baltimore D. RT Interactions between heterologous helix-loop-helix proteins generate complexes that bind specifically to a common DNA sequence RL Cell 58:537-544 (1989). RN [3]; RE0000054. RX PUBMED: 2155707. RA Davis R. L., Cheng P.-F., Lassar A. B., Weintraub H. RT The MyoD DNA binding domain contains a recognition code for muscle-specific gene activation RL Cell 60:733-746 (1990). RN [4]; RE0000092. RX PUBMED: 2493990. RA Murre C., McCaw P. S., Baltimore D. RT A new DNA binding and dimerization motif in immunoglobulin enhancer binding, daughterless, MyoD, and myc proteins RL Cell 56:777-783 (1989). RN [5]; RE0000231. RX PUBMED: 1846322. RA Sun X.-H., Baltimore D. RT An inhibitory domain of E12 transcription factor prevents DNA binding in E12 homodimers but not in E12 heterodimers RL Cell 64:459-470 (1991). RN [6]; RE0000238. RX PUBMED: 1649701. RA Lassar A. B., Davis R. L., Wright W. E., Kadesch T., Murre C., Voronova A., Baltimore D., Weintraub H. RT Functional activity of myogenic HLH proteins requires hetero-oligomerization with E12/E47-like proteins in vivo RL Cell 66:305-315 (1991). RN [7]; RE0000703. RX PUBMED: 2560751. RA Rhodes S. J., Konieczny S. F. RT Identification of MRF4: a new member of the muscle regulatory factor gene family RL Genes Dev. 3:2050-2061 (1989). RN [8]; RE0000968. RX PUBMED: 1847137. RA Chakraborty T., Brennan T., Olson E. RT Differential trans-activation of a muscle-specific enhancer by myogenic helix-loop-helix proteins is separable from DNA binding RL J. Biol. Chem. 266:2878-2882 (1991). RN [9]; RE0001227. RX PUBMED: 2761542. RA Buskin J. N., Hauschka S. D. RT Identification of a Myocyte Nuclear Factor That Binds to the Muscle-Specific Enhancer of the Mouse Muscle Creatine Kinase Gene RL Mol. Cell. Biol. 9:2627-2640 (1989). RN [10]; RE0001484. RX PUBMED: 2797000. RA Vaidya T. B., Rhodes S. J., Taparowsky E. J., Konieczny S. F. RT Fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor beta repress transcription of the myogenic regulatory gene MyoD1 RL Mol. Cell. Biol. 9:3576-3579 (1989). RN [11]; RE0001507. RX PUBMED: 1695319. RA Yutzey K. E., Rhodes S. J., Konieczny S. F. RT Differential trans activation associated with the muscle regulatory factors MyoD1, myogenin, and MRF4 RL Mol. Cell. Biol. 10:3934-3944 (1990). RN [12]; RE0001620. RX PUBMED: 1850096. RA French B. A., Chow K.-L., Olson E. N., Schwartz R. J. RT Heterodimers of myogenic helix-loop-helix regulatory factors and E12 bind a complex element governing myogenic induction of the avian cardiac alpha-actin promoter RL Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:2439-2450 (1991). RN [13]; RE0002458. RX PUBMED: 2377600. RA Weintraub H., Davis R., Lockshon D., Lassar A. RT MyoD binds cooperatively to two sites in a target enhancer sequence: Occupancy of two sites is required for activation RL Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:5623-5627 (1990). RN [14]; RE0002654. RX PUBMED: 3175662. RA Tapscott S. J., Davis R. L., Thayer M. J., Cheng P., Weintraub H., Lassar A. B. RT MyoD1: a nuclear phosphoprotein requiring a Myc homology region to convert fibroblasts to myoblasts RL Science 242:405-411 (1988). RN [15]; RE0002661. RX PUBMED: 2174572. RA Blackwell T. K., Weintraub H. RT Differences and similarities in DNA-binding preferences of MyoD and E2A protein complexes revealed by binding site selection RL Science 250:1104-1110 (1990). RN [16]; RE0002662. RX PUBMED: 1312255. RA Anthony-Cahill S. J., Benfield P. A., Fairman R., Wasserman Z. R., Brenner S. L., Stafford III W. F., Altenbach C., Hubbell W. L., DeGrado W. F. RT Molecular characterization of helix-loop-helix peptides RL Science 255:979-983 (1992). RN [17]; RE0002758. RX PUBMED: 2355914. RA Nikovits jr W., Mar J. H., Ordahl C. P. RT Muscle-Specific Activity of the Skeletal Troponin I Promoter Requires Interaction between Upstream Regulatory Sequences and Elements Contained within the First Transcribed Exon RL Mol. Cell. Biol. 10:3468-3482 (1990). RN [18]; RE0002942. RX PUBMED: 1406681. RA Shaknovich R., Shue G., Kohtz D. S. RT Conformational activation of a basic helix-loop-helix protein (MyoD1) by the C-terminal region of murine HSP90 (HSP84) RL Mol. Cell. Biol. 12:5059-5068 (1992). RN [19]; RE0003172. RX PUBMED: 3600660. RA Olson E.N., Spizz G., Tainsky M.A. RT The Oncogenic Forms of N-ras or H-ras Prevent Skeletal Myoblast Differentiation RL Mol. Cell. Biol. 7:2104-2111 (1987). RN [20]; RE0003211. RX PUBMED: 2430720. RA Lassar A. B., Paterson B. M., Weintraub H. RT Transfection of a DNA locus that mediates the conversion of 10T1/2 fibroblasts into myoblasts RL Cell 47:649-656 (1986). RN [21]; RE0003212. RX PUBMED: 3690668. RA Davis R. L., Weintraub H., Lassar A. B. RT Expression of a single transfected cDNA converts fibroblasts into myoblasts RL Cell 51:987-1000 (1987). RN [22]; RE0003213. RX PUBMED: 2552320. RA Sassoon D., Lyons G., Wright W. E., Lin V., Lassar A. B., Weintraub H., Buckingham M. RT Expression of two myogenic regulatory factors myogenin and MyoD1 during mouse embryogenesis RL Nature 341:303-307 (1989). RN [23]; RE0003214. RX PUBMED: 2548731. RA Lassar A. B., Thayer M. J., Overell R. W., Weintraub H. RT Transformation by activated ras or fos prevents myogenesis by inhibiting expression of MyoD1 RL Cell 58:659-667 (1989). RN [24]; RE0003215. RX PUBMED: 2748593. RA Weintraub H., Tapscott S. J., Davis R. L., Thayer M. J., Adam M. A., Lassar A. B., Miller A. D. RT Activation of muscle-specific genes in pigment, nerve, fat, liver, and fibroblast cell lines by forced expression of MyoD RL Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:5434-5438 (1989). RN [25]; RE0003216. RX PUBMED: 2546677. RA Thayer M. J., Tapscott S. J., Davis R. L., Wright W. E., Lassar A. B., Weintraub H. RT Positive autoregulation of the myogenic determination gene MyoD1 RL Cell 58:241-248 (1989). RN [26]; RE0003218. RX PUBMED: 2359457. RA Sorrentino V., Pepperkok R., Davis R. L., Ansorge W., Philipson L. RT Cell proliferation inhibited by MyoD1 independently of myogenic differentiation RL Nature 345:813-815 (1990). RN [27]; RE0003222. RX PUBMED: 1311614. RA Fuechtbauer E. M., Westphal H. RT MyoD and myogenin are coexpressed in regulating skeletal muscle of the mouse RL Dev. Dyn. 193:34-39 (1992). RN [28]; RE0003223. RX PUBMED: 1850105. RA Miner J. H., Wold B. J. RT c-myc inhibition of MyoD and myogenin-initiated myogenic differentiation RL Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:2842-2851 (1992). RN [29]; RE0003225. RX PUBMED: 1313772. RA Li L., Chambard J. C., Karin M., Olson E. N. RT Fos and Jun repress transcriptional activation by myogenin and MyoD: the amino terminus of Jun can mediate repression RL Genes Dev. 6:676-689 (1992). RN [30]; RE0003226. RX PUBMED: 1406697. RA Carnac G., Albagli-Curiel O., Vandromme M., Pinset C., Montarras D., Laudet V., Bonnieu A. RT 3, 5, 3 - triiodothyronine positively regulates both MyoD1 gene transcription and terminal differentiation in C2 myoblasts RL Mol. Endocrinol. 6:1185-1194 (1992). RN [31]; RE0003227. RX PUBMED: 1329087. RA van Antwerp M. E., Chen D. G., Chang C., Prochownik E. V. RT A point mutation in MyoD basic domain imparts c-Myc-like properties RL Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:9010-9014 (1992). RN [32]; RE0003228. RX PUBMED: 1321827. RA Kim S. J., Kim K. Y., Tapscott S. J., Winokur T. S., Park K., Fujiki H., Weintraub H., Roberts A. B. RT Inhibition of protein phosphatases blocks myogenesis by first altering MyoD binding activity RL J. Biol. Chem. 267:15140-15145 (1992). RN [33]; RE0003232. RX PUBMED: 8393567. RA Thayer M. J., Weintraub H. RT A cellular factor stimulates the DNA-binding activity of MyoD and E47 RL Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:6483-6487 (1993). RN [34]; RE0003234. RX PUBMED: 8387507. RA Winter B., Braun T., Arnold H. H. RT cAMP-dependent protein kinase represses myogenic differentiation and the activity of the muscle-specific helix-loop-helix transcription factors Myf-5 and MyoD RL J. Biol. Chem. 13:9869-9878 (1993). RN [35]; RE0003236. RX PUBMED: 8381715. RA Gu W., Schneider J. W., Condorelli G., Kaushal S., Mahdavi V., Nadal-Ginard B. RT Interaction of myogenic factors and the retinoblastoma protein mediates muscle cell commitment and differentiation RL Cell 72:309-324 (1993). RN [36]; RE0003238. RX PUBMED: 8396258. RA Hollenberg S. M., Cheng P. F., Weintraub H. RT Use of a conditional MyoD transcription factor in studies of MyoD trans-activation and muscle determination RL Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:8028-8032 (1993). RN [37]; RE0003239. RX PUBMED: 8269513. RA Rudnicki M. A., Schnegelsberg P. N. J., Stead R. H., Braun T., Arnold H. H., Jaenisch R. RT MyoD or Myf-5 is required for the formation of skeletal muscle RL Cell 75:1351-1359 (1993). RN [38]; RE0003240. RX PUBMED: 8127707. RA Muscat G. E. O., Mynett-Johnson L., Dowhan D., Downes M., Griggs R. RT Activation of MyoD gene transcription by 3, 4, 3'-triiodo-L-thyronine: a direct role for the thyroid hormone and retinoid X receptors RL Nucleic Acids Res. 22:583-591 (1994). RN [39]; RE0003241. RX PUBMED: 8120060. RA Pedraza-Alva G., Zingg J. M., Jost J. P. RT AP-1 binds to a putative cAMP response element of the MyoD1 promoter and negatively modulates MyoD1 expression in dividing myoblasts RL J. Biol. Chem. 269:6978-6985 (1994). RN [40]; RE0003242. RX PUBMED: 7958889. RA Weintraub H., Genetta T., Kadesch T. RT Tissue-specific gene activation by MyoD: determination of specificity by cis-acting repression elements RL Genes Dev. 8:2203-2211 (1994). RN [41]; RE0003244. RX PUBMED: 1330322. RA Rudnicki M. A., Braun T., Hinuma S., Jaenisch R. RT Inactivation of MyoD in mice leads to up-regulation of the myogenic HLH gene Myf-5 and results in apparently normal muscle development RL Cell 71:383-390 (1992). RN [42]; RE0003392. RX PUBMED: 8181063. RA Ma P. C. M., Rould M. A., Weintraub H., Pabo C. O. RT Crystal structure of MyoD bHLH domain-DNA complex: perspectives on DNA recognition and implications for transcriptional activation RL Cell 77:451-459 (1994). RN [43]; RE0003393. RX PUBMED: 8479534. RA Ferre-D'Amare A. E., Prendergast G. C., Ziff E. B., Burley S. K. RT Recognition by Max of its cognate DNA through a dimeric b/HLH/Z domain RL Nature 363:38-45 (1993). RN [44]; RE0003394. RX PUBMED: 8306960. RA Ferre-D'Amare A. R., Pognonec P., Roeder R. G., Burley S. K. RT Structure and function of the b/HLH/Z domain of USF RL EMBO J. 13:180-189 (1994). RN [45]; RE0003414. RX PUBMED: 1651276. RA Weintraub H., Dwarki V. J., Verma I., Davis R. L., Hollenberg S., Snider L., Lassar A. B., Tapscott S. J. RT Muscle-specific transcriptional activation by MyoD RL Genes Dev. 5:1377-1386 (1991). RN [46]; RE0003415. RX PUBMED: 8248126. RA Fairman R., Beran-Steed R. K., Anthony-Cahill S. J., Lear J. D., Stafford III W. F., DeGrado W. F., Benfield P. A., Brenner S. L. RT Multiple oligomeric states regulate the DNA binding of helix-loop-helix proteins RL Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:10429-10433 (1993). RN [47]; RE0003416. RX PUBMED: 8300601. RA Shue G., Kohtz D. RT Structural and functional aspects of basic helix-loop-helix protein folding by heat-shock protein RL J. Biol. Chem. 269:2707-2711 (1994). RN [48]; RE0003417. RX PUBMED: 2236052. RA Crescenzi M., Fleming T. P., Lassar A. B., Weintraub H., Aaronson S. A. RT MyoD induces growth arrest independent of differentiation in normal and transformed cells RL Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:8442-8446 (1990). RN [49]; RE0003418. RX PUBMED: 1310896. RA Bengal E., Ransone L., Scharfmann R., Dwarki V. J., Tapscott S. J., Weintraub H., Verma I. M. RT Functional antagonism between c-Jun and MyoD proteins: a direct physical association RL Cell 68:507-519 (1992). RN [50]; RE0005811. RX PUBMED: 7753857. RA Vandromme M., Cavadore J.-C., Bonnieu A., Froeschle A., Lamb N., Fernandez A. RT Two nuclear localization signals present in the basic-helix 1 domains of MyoD promote its active nuclear translocation and can function independly RL Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:4646-4650 (1995). RN [51]; RE0006798. RX PUBMED: 7589808. RA Li L., Cserjesi P., Olson E. N. RT Dermo-1: A novel twist-related bHLH protein expressed in the developing dermis RL Dev. Biol. 172:280-292 (1995). RN [52]; RE0018254. RX PUBMED: 12037571. RA Ge K., Guermah M., Yuan C. X., Ito M., Wallberg A. E., Spiegelman B. M., Roeder R. G. RT Transcription coactivator TRAP220 is required for PPAR gamma 2-stimulated adipogenesis. RL Nature 417:563-567 (2002). RN [53]; RE0048027. RX PUBMED: 16055116. RA Kaspar P., Pajer P., Sedlak D., Tamaoki T., Dvorak M. RT c-Myb inhibits myogenic differentiation through repression of MyoD. RL Exp. Cell Res. 309:419-428 (2005). RN [54]; RE0048056. RX PUBMED: 15531760. RA Tintignac L. A., Lagirand J., Batonnet S., Sirri V., Leibovitch M. P., Leibovitch S. A. RT Degradation of MyoD mediated by the SCF (MAFbx) ubiquitin ligase. RL J. Biol. Chem. 280:2847-2856 (2005). RN [55]; RE0048828. RX PUBMED: 15922741. RA Yun B. G., Matts R. L. RT Differential effects of Hsp90 inhibition on protein kinases regulating signal transduction pathways required for myoblast differentiation. RL Exp. Cell Res. 307:212-223 (2005). RN [56]; RE0052561. RX PUBMED: 11285237. RA Mal A., Sturniolo M., Schiltz R. L., Ghosh M. K., Harter M. L. RT A role for histone deacetylase HDAC1 in modulating the transcriptional activity of MyoD: inhibition of the myogenic program. RL EMBO J. 20:1739-1753 (2001). XX //